EIS

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to study a wide variety of systems in many fields of electrochemistry such as electrode kinetics, double-layer studies, batteries, corrosion, solid-state electrochemistry, bioelectrochemistry, photovoltaic systems. The system under test is generally perturbed by a sine wave current or potential of small amplitude.  Measurements as a function of frequency of the perturbation give an impedance (or admittance) diagram. The small perturbation of the electrode state has the advantage that the solutions of relevant mathematical equations used are transformed in linear forms. Explanations of impedance diagram are made in terms of electrical equivalent circuits or in term of faradaic impedance which depends on the electrode reactions.

Literature

AN#8 – Impedance, admittance, Nyquist, Bode, Black, etc…
AN#9 – Linear vs. non linear systems in impedance measurements
AN#14 – ZFit and equivalent electrical circuits
AN#15 – Two questions about Kramers-Kronig transformations
AN#16 – Simultaneous Impedance measurements on each element of a running cell stack
AN#17 – Drift correction in electrochemical impedance measurements
AN#18 – Staircase Potentio Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and automatic successive ZFit analysis
AN#19 – EIS measurements with multisine
AN#20 – Pseudo capacitance calculation (updated December 9, 2010)
AN#21 – Measurements of the double layer capacitance
AN#23 – EIS measurements on Li-ion batteries-EC-Lab software parameters adjustment (updated December 9, 2010)
AN#24 – Photovoltaic Characterizations: Polarization and Mott Schottky plot
AN#26 – Graphic Customization
AN#30 – IMVS investigation on photovoltaic cell (updated June 8, 2010)
AN#32 – Fuel Cell Testing-Part II: EIS characterization
AN#38 – Dynamic resistance determination. A relation between AC and DC measurements?
AN#42 – ZFit : The modified inductance element La.
AN#43 – How to fit transmission lines with ZFit
AN#44 – Artefacts in EIS measurements
AN#45 – Using ZFit for multiple cycles analysis
AN#49 – EIS measurements: Potentio (PEIS) vs. Galvano (GEIS) mode, that is the question!
AN#50-I – Math Reminder for electrochemists: I. The simplicity of complex number and impedance diagrams
AN#50-II – Math Reminder for electrochemists: II. The simplicity of Laplace transform
AN#54 – How to read EIS accuracy contour plots
AN#55 – Interpretation problems of impedance measurements made on time variant systems
AN#59 – A full solution to address battery module/pack.
AN#60 – Distribution of Relaxation Times (DRT): an introduction
AN#61 – How to interpret lower frequencies impedance in batteries ?

 

Local Electrochemistry Investigation
AN#4 – Post-treatment and optimization of area scan experiments
AN#5 – Introducing the Microscopic Image Rapid Analysis (MIRA) software
AN#8 – Graphical and analysis tools in M370/M470 software
AN#12 – 3D Map production using the 3DIsoPlot software

 

Material testing
AN#1 – Electrical characterization of a ceramic with MTZ-35 and HTSH-1100 test fixture

ITFL

EIS accuracy contour plot

How to use EIS contour plots?

This tool describes the relationship between the cell impedance and the accuracy contour plot of the instrument. This is done to help the user to define the best frequency window to use with Zfit in accordance with accuracy domains. Examples are shown for three different instrument families.

  • Choose your instrument family
  • Select an equivalent circuit in the list
  • Move the cursor to change the frequency value and components values
  • Check the position of the spot on the contour plot
  • This spot defines the impedance value at a given frequency

 

Interactive atlas of Nyquist impedance diagrams

Interactive equivalent circuit library

Simulation of ohmic drop measurement

Low frequency inductive loop

Randles circuit with different mass transport condition

Interactive faradaic impedance library

Redox reaction (E) RDE

EE reaction (RDE)

(EC/CE) reaction (RDE)

Electroadsorption reaction

Dissolution-passivation reaction

Dissolution-passivation of a metal with autocatalytic reaction (Hopf bifurcation)

  • Dissolution-passivation of a metal with autocatalytic reaction – (Updated July 27, 2009) – Mathematica player file

Dissolution-passivation of a metal on a Rotating Disk Electrode with chemical desorption

Volmer-Heyrovsky reaction

Volmer-Heyrovsky Reaction (V-H) with mass transfer limitation on a Rotating Disk Electrode

Volmer-Heyrovsky corrosion reaction

Volmer-Heyrovsky with chemical desorption

Indirect insertion reaction #1

 

Indirect insertion reaction #2

Interactive transfer function library

Lumped (rational) transfer functions

Distributed (irrational) transfer functions

Handbook of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Etude de réactions électrochimiques par SIE

Related instruments

  • BCS-805

    BCS-805

    Powerful and flexible equipment for battery cycling with EIS capability

    The BCS-805 battery cycling system is the smallest unit in our line of battery cyclers with a max current of ±150 mA per channel.

    Channels: 8
    Max current: +/-150 mA
    Voltage range: 0 V to 10 V
    EIS: 10 kHz to 10 mHz
    Current resolution: 18 bit
    Time resolution: 2ms

  • BCS-810

    BCS-810

    Powerful and flexible equipment for battery cycling with EIS capability

    With a maximum current of ±1.5 Amps per channel, the BCS-810 is the mid-sized unit in the new line of advanced battery cyclers.

    Channels: 8
    Max current: +/- 1.5 A
    Voltage range: 0 V to 10 V
    EIS: 10 kHz to 10 mHz
    Current resolution: 18 bit
    Time resolution: 2ms

  • BCS-815

    BCS-815

    Powerful and flexible equipment for battery cycling with EIS capability

    The BCS-815 battery cycler is the largest module available in the BSC-8xx line of instruments.

     

    Channels: 8
    Max current: +/-15 A (up to 120 A in //)
    Voltage range: 0 V to 10 V
    EIS: 10 kHz to 10 mHz
    Current resolution: 18 bit
    Time resolution: 2ms

  • BCS-8xx series

    BCS-8xx series

    Powerful and Flexible equipment for battery cycling

    The BCS-8xx series is a modular battery cycling system that provide superior performance and specifications. Each system can be equipped with different module to match your current needs.

    .

    Channel: up to 128
    Max current: Up to 120A (parallel mode)
    Voltage range: 0 V to 10 V
    EIS: 10 kHz to 10 mHz
    Current resolution: 18 bit
    Time resolution: 2ms

  • CLB-2000

    CLB-2000

    Load for fuel cell or photovolatic stack application

    The CLB-2000 Controlled Load Box is a stand-alone compact electronic load bank of 2000 W (150 A / 50 V) controlled by an integrated potentiostat/galvanostat.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Max current dynamic: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: 0.6 V to +5 V
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • FCT-50/150S

    FCT-50/150S

    Two models for 25 and 50 cm²

    The FCT-150S and FCT-50S are compact fuel cell test stations designed for PEMFC testing

    Channel: single
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • FlexP 0160

    FlexP 0160

    High Power Booster for VMP3 (FlexP 0160)

    The FlexP 0160 is designed for battery stack/pack characterizations. The continuous maximum current of +/-50 A for a single unit can be extended up to +/-200 A by connecting four units in parallel.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max current dynamic: +/-50 A
    Voltage range: 1 V to +60 V
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • HCP-1005

    HCP-1005

    High current potentiostat dedicated for Li- battery application

    The HCP-1005 is a compact high current potentiostat / galvanostat / FRA specially designed to study secondary batteries with a high capacity.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Max current dynamic: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: 0.6 V to +5 V
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • HCP-803

    HCP-803

    High current potentiostat dedicated for  supercapacitor and photovolatic cell application

    The HCP-803 is a high current potentiostat capable of producing 80 A with a voltage range of ±3 V.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Max current dynamic: +/-80 A
    Voltage range: -3 V to +3 V
    EIS: up to 15 kHz

  • HCV-3048 Booster

    HCV-3048 Booster

    Fast and powerful current & voltage external booster for VMP-300 series

    The HCV-3048 is designed for battery stack/pack characterizations. The continuous maximum current of +/-30 A for a single unit can be extended up to +/-120 A by connecting four units in parallel.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-300 mA
    Max current dynamic: +/-30 A
    Voltage range: 0 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 500 kHz

  • M370 – LEIS

    M370 – LEIS

    Using a bi-electrode probe, the local ac current flowing from the sample under sinusoidal potential modulation and leading to the local impedance of the sample is measured. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, a pstat/gstat/FRA, in two different chassis.

    Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.
    Measures a full impedance graph at a specific point or the spatially resolved impedance at one single frequency of a conducting sample.

  • M470 – ac/dc-SDS

    M470 – ac/dc-SDS

    Two scanning heads are offered in this technique: in the first one the electrolyte flowing in the droplet is renewed. In the second the electrolyte in the droplet is static. The system includes a positioning system, an pstat/gstat/FRA that can be hosted in the control box.

    Alternating and direct current Scanning Droplet System.
    Uses a small droplet as an electrolyte and allows the user to select a small area of the sample and interrogate it using classical dc or ac electrochemistry techniques.

  • M470 – ac/dc-SECM

    M470 – ac/dc-SECM

    The probe used in this technique is a tapered disk ultramicroelectrode. The resolution depends on the size of the electrode. The system is provided with a positioning system, a control box hosting two pstat/gstats/FRA to polarize both the sample and the electrode.

    Alternating and direct current Scanning Electrochemical Microscope.
    Measures the local electrochemical reactivity of a surface using dc current or the impedance of the probe.

  • M470 – ic-SECM

    M470 – ic-SECM

    The SECM probe maintained at a constant distance from the sample. Rough, large, uneven samples can be studied using this mode with dc- or ac-SECM. In addition to an ac/dc-SECM system, it only requires an additional piezo element and two LIAs (Lock-In Amplifier) hosted by the control box.

    Intermittent contact SECM.
    Measures the local reactivity of a surface at a constant distance, instead of constant height.

  • M470 – LEIS

    M470 – LEIS

    The local ac current flowing from the sample under sinusoidal potential modulation and leading to the local impedance of the sample is measured by a bi-electrode probe. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, a pstat/gstat/FRA board, all can be hosted in the control box.

    Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.
    Measures a full impedance graph at a specific point or the spatially resolved impedance at one single frequency of a conducting sample.

  • MCS 10

    MCS 10

    µS to S from -40 °C to +150 °C

    Based on our expertise in impedance spectroscopy, Bio-Logic has developed the MCS 10, a unique integration of a frequency response analyzer and a temperature control unit, enabling mutli-sampling at various temperatures.

    Conductivity ranges: 6 ranges from 2 μS/cm to 0.2 S/cm
    Temperature range: -40 °C to +150 °C
    Temperature Accuracy: +/-0.2% (typ.) +/-0.1 °C
    Number of samples:10 slots for 12 mm vials
    Computer connection: USB 2.0
    Cell type: Parallel plates platinized platinum on glass holder (x10)

  • MPG-2

    MPG-2

    Research grade battery tester with optional EIS capability

    The MPG-2 is a multi-channel, research grade battery cycler designed for research on intercalation compounds, batteries and supercapacitors.

    Channels: 16
    Max current: +/-100 mA
    Voltage range: -10 V to 10 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 5
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MPG-205

    MPG-205

    5 A each for battery testing with optional EIS capability

    The MPG-205 battery test station has 8 independent channels, offering 5 A on each channel in a fixed configuration.

    Channels: 8
    Max current: +/-5 A
    Voltage range: -2 V to 9 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 7
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MPG-210

    MPG-210

    10 A each for battery testing with optional EIS capability

    The MPG-210 battery test station has 4 independent channels, offering 10 A on each channel in a fixed configuration.

    Channels: 4
    Max current: +/-10 A
    Voltage range: -2 V to 9 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 7
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MPG-220

    MPG-220

    20 A each for battery testing with optional EIS capability

    The MPG-220 battery test station has 2 independent channels, offering 20 A on each channel in a fixed configuration.

    Channels: 2
    Max current: +/-20 A
    Voltage range: -2 V to 9 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 7
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MPG-240

    MPG-240

    40 A/ 9 V powered workstation for battery testing with optional EIS capability

    The MPG-240 battery test station is an one channel system offering 40 A in a fixed configuration.

    Channel: 1
    Max current: +/-40 A
    Voltage range: -2 V to 9 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 7
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MPG-2xx series

    MPG-2xx series

    R&D grade battery testing instruments

    The MPG-2xx series are modular research grade battery cycling instruments available with 5 different current range to fit every single cell needs.

    Max current: Up to 40 A
    Voltage range: -2 V to 9 V
    EIS: 20 kHz to 10 µHz
    Current ranges: 7
    Time resolution: 200 µs

  • MTZ-35

    MTZ-35

    Exploring new frontiers of impedance testing

    The Bio-Logic MTZ-35 impedance analyzer has the specifications and features required to address the broad scope of applications in the materials research field.

    Frequency Range: 10 μHz to 35 MHz
    Voltage range DC: ±100 μV to ±10 V
    Voltage range AC: 100 μV to 10 V

    Measurement range
    Inductance: 10 nH to 10 kH
    Capacitance: 1 pF to 1000 μF
    Resistance: 1 mΩ to 500 MΩ
    Basic accuracy: 0.1%

  • SP-150

    SP-150

    Powerful in a versatile chassis

    The SP-150 is a value oriented reseach grade potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-800 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • SP-200

    SP-200

    Compact and powerful in a portable chassis

    The SP-200 is a fast & sensitive high end potentiostat/galvanostat.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/- 500 mA
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -10 V to +10 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • SP-240

    SP-240

    Compact and powerful in a portable chassis

    SP-240 is the newest, research grade, value-oriented potentiostat / galvanostat in the Bio-Logic product range offering up to 4 Amps.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/4 A
    Max with current booster option: +/-30 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +14 V
    with option: -48 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • SP-300

    SP-300

    Fast, Sensitive, stable and modular

    SP-300 is a state-of-the-art modular high end potentiostat / galvanostat / FRA with remarkable specifications.

    Channel: single/bipot
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +-A30
    Voltage range: -10V to +10V
    with option: -48V to +48V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • VMP-300

    VMP-300

    A new step in the combination of performance and versatility

    VMP-300 is an ultimate and modular 16 channel potentiostat/galvanostat

     

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-150 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -48 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • VMP3

    VMP3

    Multi-Channel & Multi-Users

    The VMP3 is a modular 16 channel potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-400 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • VSP

    VSP

    Ultimate Electrochemical Workstation

    The VSP is a research grade potentiostat system in a 5-channel modular chassis. This allows the VSP to add additional capability in the way of plug-in “modules”.

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-400 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • VSP-300

    VSP-300

    Fast, sensitive, stable and modular… a remarkable combination!!!

    VSP-300 is a state-of-the-art high end potentiostat / galvanostat / FRA with remarkable specifications.

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-40 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -48V to +48V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz