Corrosion & Coatings

Corrosion is the study of the electrochemical degradation of a material. Studying corrosion is actually studying how to prevent corrosion. The first step is to understand it. The literature below will provide knowledge and tools on how to best use our instruments to study corrosion kinetics and thermodynamics.
It should be noted that corrosion has an important subsection called localized corrosion which can be studied by a range of instruments that we call “scanning microscopy” instruments. Like in many other fields, the local properties determine the global properties.

Literature

Electrochemistry
AN#10 – Corrosion current measurement for an iron electrode in an acid solution (updated February 24, 2011)
AN#17 – Drift correction in electrochemical impedance measurements
AN#20 – Pseudo capacitance calculation (updated December 9, 2010)
AN#22 – Corrosion of reinforced concrete
AN#25 – Multi Pitting Corrosion
AN#26 – Graphic Customization
AN#36 – VASP: An innovative and exclusive technique for corrosion monitoring
AN#37 – CASP: a new method for the determination of corrosion parameters (updated October 20, 2011)
AN#38 – Dynamic resistance determination. A relation between AC and DC measurements?
AN#39-I – Electrochemical Noise Measurements-Part I : ASTM assessment and validation of the instrumental noise
AN#39-II – Electrochemical Noise Measurements-Part II : ASTM assessment and validation on a real electrochemical system
AN#39-III – Electrochemical Noise Measurements-Part III : Determination of the noise resistance Rn
AN#45 – Using ZFit for multiple cycles analysis
AN#47 – Corrosion current determination with mass transfer limitation
AN#48 – Inaccuracy of the corrosion current determination in presence of an ohmic drop: EC-Lab® solutions
AN#49 – EIS measurements: Potentio (PEIS) vs. Galvano (GEIS) mode, that is the question!
AN#55 – Interpretation problems of impedance measurements made on time variant systems
AN#56 – Electrochemical reaction kinetics measurement: the Levich and Koutecký-Levich analysis tools

Local Electrochemistry Investigation
AN#1 – Height tracking with the SKP370 or SKP470 module
AN#2 – SECM height relief with OSP: An application in corrosion
AN#4 – Post-treatment and optimization of area scan experiments
AN#5 – Introducing the Microscopic Image Rapid Analysis (MIRA) software
AN#6 – Advantages of the intermittent contact SECM : two examples in corrosion
AN#8 – Graphical and analysis tools in M370/M470 software
AN#9 – SKP imaging example of a corroded Zn-plated Fe sample
AN#12 – 3D Map production using the 3DIsoPlot software
AN#14 – Introduction to the Modular Map Experiment: an Interdigitated Array electrode example
AN#15 – Introduction to the USB-PIO: measuring the effect of light on a live leaf
AN#16 – Intermittent Contact (ic) SECM for relief of major topographic features

Related instruments

  • FlexP 0012

    FlexP 0012

    High Power Booster for VMP3 (FlexP 0012)

    The FlexP 0012 is designed for electrolyzer/fuel cell characterizations. The continuous maximum current of +/-200 A for a single unit can be extended up to +/-400 A by connecting two units in parallel.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max current dynamic: +/-200 A
    Voltage range: -3 V to +12 V
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • FlexP 0160

    FlexP 0160

    High Power Booster for VMP3 (FlexP 0160)

    The FlexP 0160 is designed for battery stack/pack characterizations. The continuous maximum current of +/-50 A for a single unit can be extended up to +/-200 A by connecting four units in parallel.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max current dynamic: +/-50 A
    Voltage range: 1 V to +60 V
    EIS: up to 10 kHz

  • HCP-803

    HCP-803

    High current potentiostat dedicated for  supercapacitor and photovolatic cell application

    The HCP-803 is a high current potentiostat capable of producing 80 A with a voltage range of ±3 V.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Max current dynamic: +/-80 A
    Voltage range: -3 V to +3 V
    EIS: up to 15 kHz

  • HCV-3048 Booster

    HCV-3048 Booster

    Fast and powerful current & voltage external booster for VMP-300 series

    The HCV-3048 is designed for battery stack/pack characterizations. The continuous maximum current of +/-30 A for a single unit can be extended up to +/-120 A by connecting four units in parallel.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-300 mA
    Max current dynamic: +/-30 A
    Voltage range: 0 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 500 kHz

  • M370 – dc-SDS

    M370 – dc-SDS

    Two scanning heads are offered in this technique: in the first one the electrolyte flowing in the droplet is renewed. In the second the electrolyte in the droplet is static. The system includes a positioning system, two control boxes hosting the pstat/gstat and the positioning control.

    Alternating and direct current Scanning Droplet System.
    Uses a small droplet as an electrolyte and allows the user to select a small area of the sample and interrogate it using classical dc electrochemistry techniques.

  • M370 – dc-SECM

    M370 – dc-SECM

    The probe used in this technique is a tapered disk ultramicroelectrode. The resolution depends on the size of the electrode. The system is provided with a positioning system, two control boxes hosting the two pstat/gstats and the positioning control.

    Direct current Scanning Electrochemical Microscope.
    Measures the local electrochemical reactivity of a surface using dc current.

  • M370 – LEIS

    M370 – LEIS

    Using a bi-electrode probe, the local ac current flowing from the sample under sinusoidal potential modulation and leading to the local impedance of the sample is measured. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, a pstat/gstat/FRA, in two different chassis.

    Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.
    Measures a full impedance graph at a specific point or the spatially resolved impedance at one single frequency of a conducting sample.

  • M370 – OSP

    M370 – OSP

    The OSP scanning head is used with a bespoke that allows all the various modes of operation to be performed. In addition to topography; transparent films thickness can also be measured. The system includes a positioning system, an OSP head and an OSP board.

    Optical Surface Profiler.
    Measures the topography and roughness of a sample using diffracted light from a laser beam.

  • M370 – SKP

    M370 – SKP

    Using a metallic probe shielded by a metallic cylinder, the Kelvin potential, also named surface potential difference, related to the work function difference, is measured. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier), all are hosted in the control box.

    Scanning Kelvin Probe.
    Measures the local Kelvin potential, which is related to work function difference between the tip and the sample.

  • M370 – SVP

    M370 – SVP

    This technique uses a single wire probe to measure the voltage difference in a solution related to local currents flowing from a corroding or polarized sample. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier) and optionally a pstat/gstat, all are hosted in the control boxes.

    Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique.
    Measures local anodic and cathodic currents from a free corroding or polarized sample.

  • M470 – ac/dc-SDS

    M470 – ac/dc-SDS

    Two scanning heads are offered in this technique: in the first one the electrolyte flowing in the droplet is renewed. In the second the electrolyte in the droplet is static. The system includes a positioning system, an pstat/gstat/FRA that can be hosted in the control box.

    Alternating and direct current Scanning Droplet System.
    Uses a small droplet as an electrolyte and allows the user to select a small area of the sample and interrogate it using classical dc or ac electrochemistry techniques.

  • M470 – ac/dc-SECM

    M470 – ac/dc-SECM

    The probe used in this technique is a tapered disk ultramicroelectrode. The resolution depends on the size of the electrode. The system is provided with a positioning system, a control box hosting two pstat/gstats/FRA to polarize both the sample and the electrode.

    Alternating and direct current Scanning Electrochemical Microscope.
    Measures the local electrochemical reactivity of a surface using dc current or the impedance of the probe.

  • M470 – ic-SECM

    M470 – ic-SECM

    The SECM probe maintained at a constant distance from the sample. Rough, large, uneven samples can be studied using this mode with dc- or ac-SECM. In addition to an ac/dc-SECM system, it only requires an additional piezo element and two LIAs (Lock-In Amplifier) hosted by the control box.

    Intermittent contact SECM.
    Measures the local reactivity of a surface at a constant distance, instead of constant height.

  • M470 – LEIS

    M470 – LEIS

    The local ac current flowing from the sample under sinusoidal potential modulation and leading to the local impedance of the sample is measured by a bi-electrode probe. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, a pstat/gstat/FRA board, all can be hosted in the control box.

    Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.
    Measures a full impedance graph at a specific point or the spatially resolved impedance at one single frequency of a conducting sample.

  • M470 – OSP

    M470 – OSP

    The OSP scanning head is used with a bespoke that allows all the various modes of operation to be performed. In addition to topography; transparent films thickness can also be measured. The system includes a positioning system, an OSP head and an OSP board.

    Optical Surface Profiler.
    Measures the topography and roughness of a sample using diffracted light from a laser beam.

  • M470 – SKP

    M470 – SKP

    Using a metallic probe shielded by a metallic cylinder, the Kelvin potential, also named surface potential difference, related to the work function difference, is measured. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier), all are hosted in the control box.

    Scanning Kelvin Probe.
    Measures the local Kelvin potential, which is related to work function difference between the tip and the sample.

  • M470 – SVP

    M470 – SVP

    This technique uses a single wire probe to measure the voltage difference in a solution related to local currents flowing from a corroding or polarized sample. The system includes a positioning system, an electrometer board, an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier) and optionally a pstat/gstat/FRA board, all can be hosted in the control box.

    Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique.
    Measures local anodic and cathodic currents from a free corroding or polarized sample.

  • MTZ-35

    MTZ-35

    Exploring new frontiers of impedance testing

    The Bio-Logic MTZ-35 impedance analyzer has the specifications and features required to address the broad scope of applications in the materials research field.

    Frequency Range: 10 μHz to 35 MHz
    Voltage range DC: ±100 μV to ±10 V
    Voltage range AC: 100 μV to 10 V

    Measurement range
    Inductance: 10 nH to 10 kH
    Capacitance: 1 pF to 1000 μF
    Resistance: 1 mΩ to 500 MΩ
    Basic accuracy: 0.1%

  • PG581

    PG581

    Ideal for on-site measurements

    The PG581 is a portable potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-10 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-20 mA
    Voltage range: -8 V to +8 V
    EIS: no

  • SECM150

    SECM150

    SECM150 sets a new standard for value in SECM research. SECM150 is a compact and value-oriented scanning electrochemical microscope that allows the user to perform local investigation on electrodes in any environment. The SECM150 combines high performance and ease-of-use.

    The new standard for value in SECM research !
    So compact that it fits in a glove box!
    Ultra high resolution <10 nm scanning resolution

  • SensorStat

    SensorStat

    Up to 14 channels in a versatile chassis

    The SensorSTAT is a value oriented bipotentiostat/bigalvanostat

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-10 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-20 mA
    Voltage range: -8 V to +8 V
    EIS: no

  • SP-150

    SP-150

    Powerful in a versatile chassis

    The SP-150 is a value oriented reseach grade potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-800 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • SP-200

    SP-200

    Compact and powerful in a portable chassis

    The SP-200 is a fast & sensitive high end potentiostat/galvanostat.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/- 500 mA
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -10 V to +10 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • SP-240

    SP-240

    Compact and powerful in a portable chassis

    SP-240 is the newest, research grade, value-oriented potentiostat / galvanostat in the Bio-Logic product range offering up to 4 Amps.

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/4 A
    Max with current booster option: +/-30 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +14 V
    with option: -48 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • SP-300

    SP-300

    Fast, Sensitive, stable and modular

    SP-300 is a state-of-the-art modular high end potentiostat / galvanostat / FRA with remarkable specifications.

    Channel: single/bipot
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +-A30
    Voltage range: -10V to +10V
    with option: -48V to +48V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • SP-50

    SP-50

    Economical and easy to use

    The SP-50 is an educational Potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: single
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Max current dynamic: +/-800 mA
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    EIS: no

  • VMP-300

    VMP-300

    A new step in the combination of performance and versatility

    VMP-300 is an ultimate and modular 16 channel potentiostat/galvanostat

     

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-150 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -48 V to +48 V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz

  • VMP3

    VMP3

    Multi-Channel & Multi-Users

    The VMP3 is a modular 16 channel potentiostat/galvanostat

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-400 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • VSP

    VSP

    Ultimate Electrochemical Workstation

    The VSP is a research grade potentiostat system in a 5-channel modular chassis. This allows the VSP to add additional capability in the way of plug-in “modules”.

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-20 nA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-2 pA
    Max current dynamic: +/-400 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-100 A
    Voltage range: -20 V to +20 V
    EIS: up to 1 MHz

  • VSP-300

    VSP-300

    Fast, sensitive, stable and modular… a remarkable combination!!!

    VSP-300 is a state-of-the-art high end potentiostat / galvanostat / FRA with remarkable specifications.

    Channel: bipot/multi
    Min current dynamic: +/-100 pA
    Min with LC/ULC option: +/-100 fA
    Max current dynamic: +/-500 mA
    Max with current booster option: +/-40 A
    Voltage range: -10 V to +10 V
    with option: -48V to +48V
    EIS: up to 7 MHz